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ICQ ICQ 120095490

FED ZORKI LENINGRAD

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CURTAIN SLIT SHUTTER
The instruction on replacement

 

Curtain slit shutter of the cameras FED and “ZORKI” has simple, original construction.

Two light tight curtains, which are produced from cured sheet, form a slit between them of definite width. It goes through aperture gate and light light-sensitive material.

Besides two curtains with ribbons (pic.89), the mechanism of the shutter consists of the reel of the curtain 58 with axis and two sheaves, liner 48 with axis and the spring, second liner 50 with axis and spring. The whole unit of the curtain or curtain shutter is gathered in the shutter housing 60 (pic.90). It is produced from the brass or aluminum castings. There is also picture frame, size 24 x 36 mm and limited gear wheel 59. Shutter housing with three screws is fixed to the upper mounting lid 3 (pic.78).

The unit of the curtain has the following design (pic. 91). First short curtain 52 is glued to the liner 50 and it is called the curtain's liner. Second long curtain 55 is glued to the reel 58 and it is called the curtains of the reel.

On the opposite side of each curtain there is a metallic plank 53. The ribbons are sewed on the both sides of the plank 54 their ends are glued to the sheaves 56. The ends of the curtain's ribbon of the reel are glued to both sides of the second liner 48.

Pic. 89 Curtain shutter is the body of the camera

There is a balance spring inside each liner, one end of it is fixed to the axis and the second one - to the liner. In the picture 92 liner is shown in pulled together and taken apart. In order to take the liner apart it is necessary

Pic. 90 Shutter housing

to unscrew the side the end of the spring is fixed to. The liner 50 is narrower than the liner 48. Two sheaves are put on the free surface of the axis 51. The ribbons pass along these sheaves. It is done because the curtains of the shutter move smoothly during the work. The mechanism of the exposures (pic. 88) is the major part of the shutter, but it is possible to repair it without taking the shutter apart. (see pic. 129).

The principle of work of the shutter. During winding curtains shutter both curtains are set for winding position. Hereat the short curtain is unwinding from the liner 50 (pic. 89), and its ribbons are winded up on the sheaves 56; long curtain is winded up the reel 58, and its ribbons unwind from the liner 48. At winding up the shutter the spring tension is stronger in both liners.

Pic. 91 Unit of the curtains

Working motion is always definite. It is regulated by limited gear wheel 59 (pic. 89, 90). Limited gear wheel is fixed in the shutter housing.

Stepped screw is an axis for it. Because of the ability of the gear wheel to rotate in both sides the screw can unscrew itself, not to let this happen, safety nut is screwed on the reverse side of the shutter housing 70 (pic. 94).

Limited gear wheel has a gutter inside the length is meant for the size of the winding curtains. There is a screw inthe shutter housing. It enters into the gutter of the gear wheel and it limits its movement. Limited gear wheel is like an intermediate joint between the launching gear wheel 65 (pic. 93) and the gear wheel of the curtains' sheave 57 (pic. 89).

Pic. 92 Liner with the spring

When the release knob is put 11 (pic. 78), the axis of the release knob squeezes out of the clutch of the launching gear wheel 65 (pic. 93) and it gives the possibility to the curtains to return to the initial position. First returns short curtain, after some time returns long curtain which is regulated by the mechanism of the exposures. A pit is formed between the curtains. It has definite size. Maximum size of the pit will be at the exposure 1/25 sec. approximately 40 mm. The less the exposure the smaller will be the pit between the curtains. If the exposure is 1/500 sec. it will be 3 mm.

Taking to pieces and pulling together the shutter. After partial taking into pieces the camera, then you can take into pieces curtain shutter (see pic.19). First of all it is necessary to take into pieces the exposure mechanism. It is necessary to unscrew the screw 43 (pic. 88) and remove lever of the exposition 41, unscrew the screw and remove the disk of exposition 44, loosen the spring 47 and take out brake trigger 45; after this it is necessary to remove sear spring 69 (pic. 94), which is fixing with the help of two screws 68 through the aperture in body of the shutter to the plank 62 (pic. 89). With the help of these screws Pic. 92. Lead drum safety angle piece is fixed inside the body of the shutter 61.

Pic. 93. Lead drum

Then it is necessary to unscrew retention screws 67 , with the help of which figure nuts 66 with left thread. The last it is necessary to unscrew three screws, with the help of which the

Pic. 94. Outer details of the shutter's body

body of the shutter is fixed to the cover 3 (pic. 78). Screws are tighten from the side of the shutter's body.

It is necessary to pull together the shutter in reverse order. It is very important to set the curtains correctly during pulling together the shutter or otherwise the shutter will not work in proper way.

The curtains are set in the form of eight (pic. 91), that is second, long curtain, which is above the first one and its string pass under the axis of the muff 51 (pic. 91).

Sheaves are put on free parts of the axis 51 of the muff 50 : the bigger one next to the bottom of the shutter's body 60 (pic. 90), the smaller one – next to the access plate. Axes 49

Pic.95 The unit of the curtain in the housing.

(pic. 90) and 51 is necessary to oil. The last models of the cameras “Zorkiy”, “Zorkiy- C”, and “Zorkiy-2C” in stead of the long sheave have short sheave and small sleeve.The unit of the curtains in the shutter housing 60 (pic.90) is set in the following order.

First of all it is necessary to put the axes of the muffs 48 and 50 (pic.89), then it is necessary to turn on figure screws 66 (pic. 94), and then set the axis of the drum 58 (pic.91) to the pit (“nest”) shutter housing 60 (pic. 90). It is necessary to put correctly the gear of the sheave 57 (pic.89) in relation to the gear 59 , it is practically impossible to do it at first attempt.

Pic. 96. The apertures in the drums.

That's why first of all, it is necessary to set it approximately and then during gathering set is finally. While setting the axis of the drum 58 to the pit it is necessary to turn the gear 59 clockwise until bumping.

After this the drum 58 together with the sheaves 56 is turned counter clockwise so, that the long curtain winds on the drum and the ribbons of the short curtain wind on the sheaves (like during shutter winding), in such a position the axis of the drum is set into the pit and the gears are joined together (pic. 95). In this picture the aperture of the drum is seen ( see the upper arrow). It is situated under the rest part of the sheaves' disk , and the end of the curtain (see the arrow) next to the drum. The quantity of the holes in the drum is different and they have not the same diameter. There are drums with round holes (pic. 96, a ); elongated hole (pic. 96, ? ); with two holes – round and elongated (pic. 96, ? ). If the hole is elongated then the drum is set so, that on the rest part of the remained disk of the sheave (see pic.95) was the part of the hole, equal to the size of the finger of the quill driver 71 (pic. 97).

If there are two holes in the drum then it is necessary to put the finger of the driver to the smaller hole. Setting the unit of the curtains in the shutter housing, it is necessary to joined the housing with the access plate 3 (pic.78). It is very difficult process and it is done in the following way : sheaves 56 (pic.89) are turned until bumping counter clock wise, and the drum 58 are

Pic. 97. Quill driver with the finger

turned so, that the hole made in it was situated under the rest part of the sheave's disk (pic. 95). Then it is necessary to take the shutter housing in the right hand, holding the drums and the

Pic. 98.

sheaves by the first finger, not to let them shift and the access plate – to the left hand. Before this it is necessary to turn quill driver 71 so that its finger was situated in the upper position (pic. 97). While joining together the shutter housing together with the access plate (pic. 98) it is necessary that the axis of the drum of the curtains get into the hole of the quill driver, and Gathering of the curtains' shutterthe finger of the driver –in the hole of the drum 58 (pic. 91). If after the setting of the shutter housing during its winding only one curtain will turn, it means that the finger of the quill driver got into the hole of the drum under the sheave's disk and not above it and it is necessary to check the gathering. Joining the shutter housing with the cover

it is necessary to screw in the left screw of the body fixing; after this it is necessary to fix the axes of both muffs in the apertures of access plate and then turn on the first screw. Then it is necessary to wind for 3,5 - 4 turns (to the left) curtains' springs, turn on the screws of fixation 67 (pic. 94), wind the shutter, set retrograde trigger 45 (pic. 88) and watch in what position brake cam is situated 46. If brake cam is not in the center of the pit of retrograde trigger as it is shown in the pic. 88, it means the gear of the sheave 57 (pic. 89) is situated incorrectly in relation to the limiting gear 59. It is necessary to remove the shutter housing and reposition for 1-2 “teeth” in one direction or another (depends on the necessity) the gear of the sheave 57 . The gear 59 remains unstable.

After correct setting of the brake cam 46 (pic. 88) it is necessary to turn on the third screw of the fixation of the shutter housing and check backlashes of the drum, sheaves and muffs. The backlash in the axis of the drum and sheaves must be lightly notable. Clouts are used for its regulation, which are put on the axis between the gear of the sheave 57 (pic. 89) and shutter housing 60. The same backlash should be between the drum 58 and sheaves 56. It is very important that limiting gear 59 turned freely (it is necessary to check before gathering).

It is necessary to set sear spring 69 (pic. 94) and angle 61 (pic. 89). Before assembling it is necessary to bend slightly the spring from the center to the edges. It is necessary to set the angle so, that its edges do not engage the curtains on the muffs and drum. Then regulate shutter's exposures (see, page 127). First of all it is necessary to regulate the exposure “ ? ”. After this the disk of exposition is set 44 (pic. 88) and the handle of the exposition 41 and regulate all the rest exposures, the work of which depends on spring tension in the muffs.

Such process demands a lot of experience. During winding the exposures are regulated with the help of the special device. In workshops experienced masters regulate the exposures aurally and by eye. It is more difficult to do so for amateur photographer. At first, as it was said it is necessary to wind the axes of the muffs for 3,5-4 turns and check the exposures 1/25, 1/50/ 1/500 sec. If these exposures work correctly then al the rest of the exposures will work correctly too. Checking the longest automatic exposure – 1/25 sec., it is necessary to pay attention to the vigor movement of the curtains, if one of the curtains or both of them move flabbily then it is necessary to tighten the spring of the curtain half turn.

Checking the exposure 1/50 sec., it is necessary to pay attention on the drum with the second curtain when the shutter acts. The drum 58 (pic. 89) is situated next to the wall of the shutter housing. If the curtain is a little bit colliding during shutter's work, it should definitely engage the wall of the shutter's housing and for some moment remain, that will lead to the fading of the lightening of the frame. The colliding movement of the curtain (it cam be seen during checking of the shutter) is necessary to debug by regulating the spring tension of the curtains. The tension of the second curtain (curtain of the drum) is necessary to enlarge or pull down the tension of the first curtain (muff's curtain). More often it is necessary to enlarge the tension of the second curtain.

The exposure 1/500 sec. is the shortest one.

The whole frame should be lighten equally. It is better to watch the edges of the aperture gate, that is utmost lines. If the lines are seen distinctly, the mechanism works correctly, if one of the lines is blurred, then it is necessary to regulate the mechanism. If the left utmost line is blurred (it is necessary to observe the shutter in the position when the heads operation are below, and release spring is above and the cam 63 (pic. 89) turned to the reader), it is necessary to enlarge the tension of the first curtain, because the second curtain “catch up” the first one beforehand. Turning the axis and the nut 66 (pic. 94) of the first curtain, it is necessary again to check the work of the shutter at exposure 1/500 sec. It is necessary to continue the regulation till the precise view of the utmost edges of the frame. After this it is necessary to check all exposures again.

It is very easy to regulate the exposures, if all surfaces of the curtain shutter are oiled and muffs and drum's curtain have backlash. It is necessary to pay special attention on the backlash of the axis curtain's drum. Some peculiarities of the curtain's regulation will be discussed below.

Most frequent characteristics of the breakage of the curtain's shutter.

Sluggish movement of the curtains is defined according to the dark overexposed negative. If to unscrew the objective it is possible to define sluggish movement

of the curtains. It happens because mechanism is dirty or old oil is dried up and thicken. Such kind of peculiarities happens in those cameras which were not used in work many years. In this case it is necessary to clean and oil the mechanism (see pic. 120).

•  During some exposures second curtain does not reset. It happens for the same reason as sluggish movement of the curtains. Besides oiling and cleaning of the mechanism it is necessary to tension the springs of curtains for 0,5-1 turns.

Such thing happens when broken particulates of the film get into the mechanism. In this case it is necessary to take out the mechanism from the body and take out the particulates of the film.

•  One of the most frequent breakages of the shutter – getting of the ribbon of the short curtain between the gear teeth.

The ribbons of the short curtain are glued to the sheaves.

The ribbons of the short curtain are glued to sheaves. Next to the sheave 56 (pic. 89) two gear wheels are situated – gear wheel of the sheave 56 and limited gear wheel 59. Ribbon gets between its teeth.

The reason of the breakdown is the following only one turn of the ribbon is glued to the sheave 56, and the rest cut of the ribbon winds on the sheave during winding of the mechanism. If weaken the tension, the ribbon goes down easily and gets between the teeth of the gear wheel.

It happens because of the incorrect and awkward handling with the camera, because of the taking out of the film from the camera, which was put incorrectly, incorrect load of the film and distortion of the angle 61 (pic. 89). The distorted angle engage the curtain with its edge, more often for the short one and its damages gradual winding of the film on the muff. The ribbon looses the tension, falls from the sheave and get between the teeth of the gear wheels. Besides, the edge of the angle breaks off the rubber coating of the film and the curtain disables.

In case of getting the ribbon between the teeth of the gear wheels the shutter stops working. In unscrew the lens then it is possible to see that the short curtain is lapsided. During the winding of the shutter the ribbon goes along the sheaves 56 and then goes aside the gear wheels (pic. 99). In this case it is necessary to stop the winding of the mechanism, to preserve the ribbon. •  Breakage of the retrograde trigger and nonoperation of the exposure “B”.

The breakage of the retrograde trigger 45 (pic. 88) and nonoperation of the exposure “B” have solder (see pic. 127).

The exposure “B” (“hand force”) is unrestricted, that is it can be any by size and equal the time of pushing on the release knob. At all automatic exposures retrograde trigger releases second curtain with the help of the handle of exposition. At exposure “B” the handle of exposition does not influence on retrograde trigger. The retrograde trigger moves up and down under the influence of two springs.

Pushing the release knob the lower spring 69 (pic. 94)goes down, the retrograde trigger under the influence of the upper spring also goes down and holds the second curtain. The shutter is closed, aperture gate is fully illuminated. Descending the release knob it is necessary to release lower spring which presses the retrograde trigger and releases second curtains.

Pic. 99 The ribbon which got between the teeth of the gear wheels.

This is how works the exposure “B”. That's why the work of exposure “B” is closely connected with the work of retrograde trigger 45 (pic. 88). The exposure “B” may not work because of the breakage or bad regulation of the retrograde trigger and because of the incorrect regulation of the handle of the exposure 41 .

Retrograde trigger 45 consists of two details: cane and trigger. Sometimes the trigger which is fixed firmly on the came starts to totter and it is impossible to regulate it. In this case it is necessary to fix it. It is necessary to put cane for this purpose on metallic platform and rivet over the place of connection the cane and trigger, by checking whether the cane is sagged.

There is a brake cam 46 on quill driver 71 (pic. 97) outside access plate (pic. 88). The brake cam is connected with the drum 58 (pic. 89) of the second long curtain with the help of the quill driver 71 (pic. 89) and its finger.

The brake cam 46 (pic. 88) is fixed firmly on the square of the quill driver. It the brake cam is badly fixed, then it is impossible to regulate it. Then it is necessary to check working order of the retrograde trigger 45 and brake cam 46. If they are exact then the exposure “B” does not work not because of the bad regulation of the retrograde trigger 45.

The regulation of the retrograde trigger has a great meaning for correct and effective

Pic. 100 Correction of the finger of the handle of exposure.

work of the exposure mechanism (all the details about it see “Mechanism of exposures”). The trigger is very thin, the brake cam has the same thickness like trigger. During the winding of the mechanism, the brake cam 46 turns together with the quill driver, and the retrograde trigger in the upper position.The retrograde cam moves under the retrograde trigger.If to push the release button, the retrograde trigger will low and the shutter starts to work, that is the first curtain turns to the initial state, and the second curtain will hold the retrograde trigger. When the retrograde trigger will descend, the brake of the handle of exposure. cam has to get into the recess of the trigger and hold in it, otherwise it is necessary to take out the retrograde trigger and file away the cane a little bit.There is also one more reason why the exposure “B” does not work properly. It was said above, that the finger of the handle exposure 41 influences on the retrograde trigger at all exposures besides “B”. There are some cases when the finger of the handle of exposure 41 comes to the trigger and at exposure “B”. It happens because of the inaccurate gluing of the curtains, and as a consequence, setting of the limited gear wheel 59. Not to glue the curtains one more time because it is very difficult and not every photographer can do it. It is possible to make the finger of the handle of exposure thinner 41. For this purpose it is necessary to remove the handle of the exposition 41 and file away the finger with the help of the small file (see the arrow in the pic. 100).

There are some cases when “B” works properly and the “finger” of the lever does not reach retrograde trigger, but after setting engraved head of the exposures 8 (pic. 78) exposure “B” does not work. It happens because the head of the exposures heavies the handle of the exposition and enlarges its turn with the help of the backlash of the handle of exposition 41 (pic. 88) and disk of exposition 44.

•  Unrestricted screwing off the screw of the limited gear wheel 59. Limited gear wheel 59 (pic. 90) is fixed to the shutter housing with the help of the screw with ledge and safety nut 70 (pic. 94). But sometimes it so happens that the screw unscrews, the clutch of the limited gear wheel breaks together with another gear wheels and the shutter breaks down. The shutter winding is not limited and it is possible to hear the rack of the gear wheels.

It is necessary to take the shutter into parts to fault handling, set and fix the gear wheel. If the safety nut 70 fell out, it is necessary to screw it up. During taking out the shutter it is not necessary to release the springs of the shutter and take out muffs from the body.

6. It so happens that one part of the frame exposes more than another part.

Such cases happen during shutter's work at 1/50 sec. and 1/500 sec. The ways of regulating those exposures you can read at page 137, however another faults happen. For example, during stronger tension than it is necessary of the spring of the second curtain, it “catches” up the first one and the part of the frame remains in the dark side. It is possible to fix it by regulating of the spring tension. The part of the frame remains dark and then when the camera is dirty and curtains move slowly.

•  Fault of the release gear wheels 65 (pic. 93, 101). One of the faults of the release gear wheels is falling out or breakage of the splint 72 (pic.101). In this case it is impossible to wind up the mechanism to the end, because in the middle and at the end of the shutter's winding the curtains fall down and back to the initial position.

If the “fingers” of the leading drum and release gear wheels (see pic. 85) separate, curtains back to the initial position. The “fingers” can freely separate when one of them break or at distribution of the release gear wheels 65 not at its place. The gear wheel 65 (pic. 101) is set on the release axis 73 and black clout 71 is put on it. The gear wheel 65 is fixed with the splint 72. If the splint is broken, the gear wheel moves on the release axis and its finger does not connect with the finger of the leading drum or gears partially, which leads to freely turning of the curtains to the initial position.

Pic.101. Release gear wheel

It is necessary to make and set new splint for fault clearing. If the splint is entire, but the gear wheel 65 has too big axis Backlash, it is necessary to take out the splint and pit it between the clout 71 and gear wheel 1-2 clouts. The breakage of the release gear wheel can happen because the shutter housing is deformed 60 (pic. 90) and the release axis 73 (pic. 101) does not reach release spring 69 (pic. 102). The butt end of the release axis 73 has to be on one level together with the bottom of the shutter housing (see the arrow in the pic. 102). If it is situated a little bit lower it is possible to fold the edge of the shutter housing.

The gear wheel 65 (pic. 101) consists of two parts: disk with an axis and gear wheel. The gear wheel is screwed up on the axis of the disk. Both of the details are connected with the help of the finger which is put in the aperture, situated in the disk and gear wheel. When the finger weakens and falls out, the gear wheel unscrews freely, if pushing on the down button the release of the shutter does not work. It is necessary to take off the release gear wheel from the axis 73 to eliminate this defect, screw it up till the uniting of the apertures, made on the disk and gear wheel and put in new finger. It is possible to cut a thread M1,4X0,25 and screw up retention screw.

Pic. 102 The axis of the down button

The way of setting and regulating the gear wheel 65 is described above.

8.Light penetration through curtains. Finding out the stain of the flash exposure it is necessary to observe it and find out its origin. It is possible the foggage from sun glints during the work in the sun without blind. Often it has prolate and half-round forms, referring big sizes which is unusual for penetrating sun through curtains. Blanket exposure may happen on different defects of the curtains: at incorrect tipping of the straps, one of them is strained harder than another one, "Lamina" of the curtain is lapsided and from one side between "Laminas" of the curtains, which have to collide one on another, form a clearance; stitch of the threads the blanket exposure may have the view of dots from needle apertures. The apertures in the curtains form from the pieces of the film, which happen in the mechanism; from the burn-through during shooting at the sun and solar eclipse. During incorrect loading of the film does not move in the film canal, then it is necessary to take it out without back winding in the cassette. Pulling out of the film often leads to the defect of the angle-plain flap 61 (pic. 89). The edge of the plain flap scratches the curtain and breaks the rubber, it damages the curtain and breaks down the work of the shutter. Such defects of the curtains, like pin holes, small apertures, is possible to glue or stop up by black nitrate dope. At serious damages it is necessary to change the curtains.

9. Unglue of the ribbons. Each curtain has "Lamina" two ribbons are sewed to it. It often happens that during natural wear and tear or incorrect handling the ribbon unglue from the muff 48 (pic. 91).The process of disassembly and assembly of the shutter and gluing of the ribbons described above. It is necessary to remember, that the ribbon on the muff is glued along the sheaves. If the ribbon tears next to the "Lamina"53 , it is necessary to sew it and if it is shorter it is necessary to shorten the second curtain; both of the ribbons must have the same length.

10. Wear and tear of the curtains. The curtains wear and tear as a result of the of the natural wear and tear or incorrect handling of the camera. The natural wear and tear is when rubber surface of the silk curtain dries up and crackles and

crumbles. Cracked curtain let pass the light and looses elasticity, which prevents normal work of the shutter exposures.

Generally the curtains wear and tear in the camera FED of the pre-war period, in camera “Zorkiy” of the first producing.

It is necessary to take the camera into apart completely to change the curtains (see the pic. 133). It is much more easier to glue new curtains, when there are marks of the old curtains situation. It is necessary to make the marks on the drum, where started the tipping of the first curtain and on the sheaves, where the tipping of the shirt curtains started. It is not necessary to make any other marks because the place of the tipping of the short curtain and ribbons of the long curtain is not important. Before gluing new curtains it is necessary to check whether the length of the new curtains and ribbons is equal to the length of the old one. Curtains and ribbons are glued by subtle shellac glue. First of all it is necessary to glue the curtains of the drum and muffs. It is necessary to check that the curtain does not have any slant and was situated on the same distance from the edges of the drum and muffs. Winding the glued curtains on the drum and on the muff, so that the curtains do not unwind, and in this position let them dry during15-20 minutes.

After this it is necessary to glue the ends of the ribbons of the long curtain to the muff 48 (pic. 91), the muss has to be situated absolutely along the "Lamina" of the curtain 53. Then it is necessary to glue the ends of the ribbons of the short curtain to the sheaves 56. It is necessary to remember that one should glue complete rotation of the curtains and ribbons.

Gluing the ribbons, it is necessary to pull together the camera, so that the glue was not dried out so that it would be possible to glue them during the glue.

It is forbidden to make marks on the places of gluing old curtains, then the exact gluing of the curtains becomes complicated and often leads to the necessary of the second scaleboard.

It is necessary to wind up the long curtain on the drum and put it in the position at the winding shutter (see the pic. 95). In the picture 95 the aperture of the drum ( see the arrow) is situated on the rest part of the sheaves' disk, and the "Lamina" of the curtain ( see the low arrow) – near the drum. Then it is necessary to fit on the curtain to the drum until it will be set as it is shown in the pic. 95. After both of the curtains will be glued and the ends of the long curtains will be glued to the muff, then it is necessary to glue the ends of the ribbons to the sheave's 56. To glue them correctly it is necessary to put the drum in the position as it is shown in the pic. 95, and glue the ribbons to the sheaves so that the "Lamina" of the long curtain close ½-1/3 "Lamina" of the shirt curtain.

In the drum with prolate apertures (see pic. 95) only the part of the aperture, which is equal to the diameter of the finger of the quill driver 71 (pic. 97).

It so happens, that curtains or ribbons unglue unfastening and falling out of the finger of the quill driver, during damaging of the limited gear wheel and another breakages. In these cases the curtains glue as it is described.

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